My blog is about the possible evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes which has been a topic of considerable controversy. Recently, a publication has been forthcoming that suggests that eukaryotes did indeed evolve from prokaryotes…at least once through a chromosomal fusion event. My blog suggests that this kind of event occurred quite a number of times because the eukaryotic chromosome is at least a 1000 times bigger than most prokaryotic chromosomes. It further suggests that these chromosomal fusions were not simply linear events but geometric, allowing a rapid buildup of the eukaryotic genome by a process I refer to as hierarchical endosymbiosis. This process can be explained as follows:

  • Event 0, one prokaryotic nucleus…………..n = 1
  • Event 1 , two fused prokaryotic nuclei…….n = 2 (see above publication)
  • Event 2, four fused prokaryotic nuclei……n = 4, (2 + 2)
  • Event 3, eight fused prokaryotic  nuclei….n = 8, (4 + 4)

Event 2 is the result of two protoeukaryotes each comprised of two fused prokaryotic nuclei fusing together.

Event 3 is the result of two protoeukaryotes each comprised of four fused prokaryotic nuclei derived from event 2 fusing together.

For a more thorough understanding of how these models have been used to provide an explanation for eukaryotic evolution, please visit the link on the page labeled “Website (1999)”. This is an old website first published in 1999. As time has passed, more and more publications are beginning to validate this line of thinking. I will provide links to these papers as time allows.


About frankabernathy

I am a retired cell biologist and alumnus of Ohio State University. I became interested in chromosomes as far back as the 1960's when I wrote a term paper on the effects of radiomimetic drugs on chromosomes. I was fascinated at how they could break apart and reform new structures so easily. I became further involved in the early 1970's after taking a cytogenetics course at the University of Arkansas. I took that knowledge with me to Ohio State in 1980 where I eventually worked on my research and completed my Ph.D. dissertation, "Studies on Eukaryotic DNA Superstructure". My studies and later research suggested that the DNA within the eukaryotic chromosome is not the simple, linear molecular thread so widely suggested in all the classic textbooks published today. Instead, it may be the culmination of a geologically rapid set of endosymbiotic events where microorganisms plug into each other to create something greater than themselves. Feel free to contact me at
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