Hierarchical endosymbiosis (the “wheel and hub” motif)

  Slide 1                 Slide 2                  Slide 3                     (Fig. 1-12)                                   (Fig. 13-28)                                   (Fig. 29-52)

See additional references for the role of contractile proteins in chromatin remodeling throughout the cell cycle.

Also, there is a paper there entitled “Endosymbionts” that discusses how endosymbionts may survive by either escaping into the host-cell cytoplasm or from phagolysosomes. If apoptosis is aborted prematurely by disrupting the cascade, ancient endosymbionts may take this opportunity to escape the cell as best they can.

Actin and tubulin are associated with movement of mitochondria and chloroplasts within cells (reference). These kinds of proteins could also be used to transport other endosymbionts as well.

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About frankabernathy

I am a retired cell biologist and alumnus of Ohio State University. I became interested in chromosomes as far back as the 1960's when I wrote a term paper on the effects of radiomimetic drugs on chromosomes. I was fascinated at how they could break apart and reform new structures so easily. I became further involved in the early 1970's after taking a cytogenetics course at the University of Arkansas. I took that knowledge with me to Ohio State in 1980 where I eventually worked on my research and completed my Ph.D. dissertation, "Studies on Eukaryotic DNA Superstructure". My studies and later research suggested that the DNA within the eukaryotic chromosome is not the simple, linear molecular thread so widely suggested in all the classic textbooks published today. Instead, it may be the culmination of a geologically rapid set of endosymbiotic events where microorganisms plug into each other to create something greater than themselves. Feel free to contact me at fabernathy@sbcglobal.net.
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