Where did we come from?

Where did human beings come from? Did we come from ape-like ancestors? If so, how? Where did apes come from? Or for that matter, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish and everything else that is composed of more than one kind of cell? Where did single celled organisms like amoeba, paramecium, and euglena come from? What about bacteria and viruses?

These kinds of  “simple” questions are nothing short of profound. Yet people are driven to the point of obsession in trying to find the answers. I am one of them. To understand how all living things are connected to one another requires an understanding of their genetic lineage. We need to understand the DNA and how it has been put together over eons of time. To do this, we need to first understand that there is much more to DNA structure than its primary code of four simple bases (A, T, G, and C). This genetic code can be used to construct countless numbers of different kinds of primary protein transcripts, but doing so requires a vast amount of temporal regulation. Otherwise, all we have are simple one-celled organisms loaded with a chaotic mix of proteins, many of which would interfere with one another. Can this kind of temporal regulation be accomplished in the absence of any DNA structure above the level of the primary DNA strand? If so, how did such a complex system ever evolve  above the level of  that seen in bacterial in the short time span allotted to it in the Cambrian explosion?

That is the whole point of this blog, to provide an explanation for how higher levels of DNA structure evolved that allowed for the rapid expansion of the myriad kinds of multicellular life forms that came about during this relatively short period of biological time. I will provide links for various topics that have been posted in this blog relative to this discussion. Or you may want to simply scroll through the blog to follow the various postings as they were “laid down” over time.

Pride goeth before a fall

How are whole animals cloned from adult cells?

Pericentriolar recycling endosomes

Can the physical structure of the human chromosome be compared to a simple piece of rope?

How is an animal built from a single cell?

Hierarchical endosymbiosis in real time

What lit the fuse for the Cambrian explosion?

Creationism versus evolution (scraping the rust off of evolutionary theory)

The evolution of mitosis

Could our DNA have evolved from simple viruses?

Are textbook depictions of our chromosomes accurate?

Are cancers new species?

Cellular differentiation and endosymbiosis revisited

Could multicellularity in animals have been the result of endosymbiotic “fungi”?

Hierarchical endosymbiosis (the “wheel and hub” motif)

Prison escape by cellular inmates?

Does apoptosis recapitulate phylogeny in reverse?

Dinosaurs and cellular differentiation

This photograph is inconsistent with a eukaryotic chromosome that contains only simple, linear DNA

Why are pluripotent stem cells falling short of expectations?

Introduction

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About frankabernathy

I am a retired cell biologist and alumnus of Ohio State University. I became interested in chromosomes as far back as the 1960's when I wrote a term paper on the effects of radiomimetic drugs on chromosomes. I was fascinated at how they could break apart and reform new structures so easily. I became further involved in the early 1970's after taking a cytogenetics course at the University of Arkansas. I took that knowledge with me to Ohio State in 1980 where I eventually worked on my research and completed my Ph.D. dissertation, "Studies on Eukaryotic DNA Superstructure". My studies and later research suggested that the DNA within the eukaryotic chromosome is not the simple, linear molecular thread so widely suggested in all the classic textbooks published today. Instead, it may be the culmination of a geologically rapid set of endosymbiotic events where microorganisms plug into each other to create something greater than themselves. Feel free to contact me at fabernathy@sbcglobal.net.
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