How do you physically build a human being?

Do you want the long or short version? I know, on a blog that’s a pretty silly question. You want the skinniest of the skinny version…right? Ok. I will do my best to comply, using a little dose of entertainment along the way to make it more interesting.

We all know that human life and that of other higher animals begins at conception, which involves the fusion of a sperm and an egg. One single fertilized egg or cell gives rise to every body part in an entire animal! How amazing is that?

So where do we go from there? How do we go from one single cell to every other cell in the body? Obviously, we can’t do this from scratch, anymore than we can build a computer from silicon dioxide or even single transistors (at least in a timely fashion, anyway). There has to be some kind of built-in programming involved. The question is, how is this program put together such that it makes a complete human in only nine months? I will not delve into too much detail about the intricacies of this here: Instead, I will appeal to your common sense. Let me start with an example: If given the opportunity, would you prefer taking the short cut to your given destination or taking a longer winding road? Here’s another: If you were building a house, would you prefer to make your own bricks from mud and straw or would you rather just go to the store and buy them already made? Better yet, what if you could buy prefabricated walls, or even entire rooms with which to build your house?

All of this sounds pretty silly doesn’t it? Yet that is exactly what classical biology has been telling you for years. The human chromosome (among others) was built brick by brick or transistor by transistor, forming an incredibly long thread of bricks or transistors which are then used to build incredibly complex cells. Makes perfect sense, right?

If you agree with that latter statement, you might want to move on to something else at this point, like fantasy football, cat pictures or buying stock in the Brooklyn Bridge.

If mammalian chromosomes are merely simple linear threads containing a core of single stranded DNA, they would be expected to break up into smaller linear fragments during the death of a cell, right? What they should NOT be doing….. is THIS!

Circles crop

What is this, you say? Well, its supposed to be a dying cell giving off linear fragments of chromosomes composed of single strands of DNA. Do you see any discrepancies with that classical viewpoint? If you don’t, congratulations on making it this far, but it’s now time for the cat blogs or whatever else suits your fancy.

“Crickets chirping as deer stand in headlights”.

Ok, since nobody else will say it, I will say it myself. These are not linear fragments at all, they are, in fact, circular in shape. Furthermore, what you see here is only a small sampling of what I show throughout this blog. I call this phenomenon “the Emperor has no clothes on”. If you are willing to concede to the notion that these cellular subunits are circular rather than linear, you might find the rest of this blog to be very fascinating. If not, you already know what to do next.

P.S. Questions are welcome as well as comments. After all, we can all learn a thing or two, can’t we?


About frankabernathy

I am a retired cell biologist and alumnus of Ohio State University. I became interested in chromosomes as far back as the 1960's when I wrote a term paper on the effects of radiomimetic drugs on chromosomes. I was fascinated at how they could break apart and reform new structures so easily. I became further involved in the early 1970's after taking a cytogenetics course at the University of Arkansas. I took that knowledge with me to Ohio State in 1980 where I eventually worked on my research and completed my Ph.D. dissertation, "Studies on Eukaryotic DNA Superstructure". My studies and later research suggested that the DNA within the eukaryotic chromosome is not the simple, linear molecular thread so widely suggested in all the classic textbooks published today. Instead, it may be the culmination of a geologically rapid set of endosymbiotic events where microorganisms plug into each other to create something greater than themselves. Feel free to contact me at
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2 Responses to How do you physically build a human being?

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