Humans from viruses? Well, sort of.

I have been saying for years that a process I call hierarchical endosymbiosis has been responsible for a geometric growth of cellular complexity starting with viruses, then, bacteria, simple complex cells (eukaryotes), and increasingly more complex eukaryotes such as ourselves.  A you tube video was launched on 6/28/15 that agrees with much of what I have been saying, that all life begin with the formation of larger chromosomes from smaller ones. However, the focus in this video is strictly on viruses, retroviruses to be more specific. Compare this to a video I recently put out (not nearly as fancy) regarding how chromosomes may have evolved starting with viruses:

Human chromosomes from:

Living Dust Video

Click to download high quality powerpoint presentation

 Hint: Viruses may have been only the beginning, even though they still play a role today.


About frankabernathy

I am a retired cell biologist and alumnus of Ohio State University. I became interested in chromosomes as far back as the 1960's when I wrote a term paper on the effects of radiomimetic drugs on chromosomes. I was fascinated at how they could break apart and reform new structures so easily. I became further involved in the early 1970's after taking a cytogenetics course at the University of Arkansas. I took that knowledge with me to Ohio State in 1980 where I eventually worked on my research and completed my Ph.D. dissertation, "Studies on Eukaryotic DNA Superstructure". My studies and later research suggested that the DNA within the eukaryotic chromosome is not the simple, linear molecular thread so widely suggested in all the classic textbooks published today. Instead, it may be the culmination of a geologically rapid set of endosymbiotic events where microorganisms plug into each other to create something greater than themselves. Feel free to contact me at
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