The fastest wins the race.

When I first introduced my ideas about hierarchical endosymbiosis to an online scientific forum (prior to writing this blog) it was met not with intellectual skepticism but something bordering on reactionary derision. I suppose that’s the way it always has been and may always be for those who do not toe the dogmatic line. (More about that under the page tab: “Rantings of a Mad Scientist”.) The general consensus of the parties that would actually converse with me about this was that everything I was saying could be explained by simple gene duplication over eons of time because there was plenty of time for it occur. On the surface, this seems reasonable enough, and I would agree with this statement except for one “tiny” wrinkle: The fastest wins the race, every time. Every time! Consider the first mass produced automobile. Let us assume for a moment that there are only two potential automobile producers. The first one makes cars one bolt at a time, and manages to get a complete engine built by the end of the day. The other one uses preassembled parts and gets an engine built within several hours. By the end of the day, this company has five automobiles ready for market using less manpower, less time, and less energy. Which one will survive and which one will go under?

That is the power of hierarchical endosymbiosis over simple gene duplication. You can read all about it right here in this blog.


About frankabernathy

I am a retired cell biologist and alumnus of Ohio State University. I became interested in chromosomes as far back as the 1960's when I wrote a term paper on the effects of radiomimetic drugs on chromosomes. I was fascinated at how they could break apart and reform new structures so easily. I became further involved in the early 1970's after taking a cytogenetics course at the University of Arkansas. I took that knowledge with me to Ohio State in 1980 where I eventually worked on my research and completed my Ph.D. dissertation, "Studies on Eukaryotic DNA Superstructure". My studies and later research suggested that the DNA within the eukaryotic chromosome is not the simple, linear molecular thread so widely suggested in all the classic textbooks published today. Instead, it may be the culmination of a geologically rapid set of endosymbiotic events where microorganisms plug into each other to create something greater than themselves. Feel free to contact me at
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