Can the linear chromosome model be saved?

In my last post (just below this one) I indicated that the linear chromosome model shown in textbooks may violate the second law of thermodynamics because of the sizes of DNA circles that would have to be stitched together from linear fragments to generate double minute chromosomes released by drugs or radiation. A possible exception to this violation may be the known fact that our chromosomes have “loops” of DNA somehow “stitched” together at the linear core of the chromosome. It is possible that the double minutes may have replicated around these loops to generate large circles of DNA without violating the second law of thermodynamics, releasing them into the nucleus as self replicating chromosomes. If so, then, upon destruction of the chromosome, it should merely fall apart into thousands of  linear fragments. After all, loops are not circles, right?

Circles crop


About frankabernathy

I am a retired cell biologist and alumnus of Ohio State University. I became interested in chromosomes as far back as the 1960's when I wrote a term paper on the effects of radiomimetic drugs on chromosomes. I was fascinated at how they could break apart and reform new structures so easily. I became further involved in the early 1970's after taking a cytogenetics course at the University of Arkansas. I took that knowledge with me to Ohio State in 1980 where I eventually worked on my research and completed my Ph.D. dissertation, "Studies on Eukaryotic DNA Superstructure". My studies and later research suggested that the DNA within the eukaryotic chromosome is not the simple, linear molecular thread so widely suggested in all the classic textbooks published today. Instead, it may be the culmination of a geologically rapid set of endosymbiotic events where microorganisms plug into each other to create something greater than themselves. Feel free to contact me at
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