Runaway Endosymbionts: What are They?

Runaway Endosymbionts: What are They? Well, I think this needs a bit of elaboration, don’t you? First of all, what exactly is a symbiont, much less and endosymbiont? Fair question. A symbiont is one of two or more organisms engaged in a symbiotic relationship. Symbiotic relations can be categorized as follows: predation, parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism. In predation, the relationship is short and violent and there is a winner and a loser. The same things applies with parasitism but usually without immediate death of one of the organisms. In fact, the best parasite is the one that causes the least damage to the host. Commensalism is where one organisms benefits without harming the other one. However, the most important of them all is mutualism, whereby all organisms involved benefit from the relationship. This is the stuff of which cells are made. Cells can coexist as either exosymbionts or endosymbionts. The former means these cells attach to one another in some way and the latter means one cell is ingested by another.  Now that you know what an endosymbiont is, it is time to move on.

How can endosymbionts “run away”? From what are they running?  At this point, let me drag out some pictures from my last two posts:

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Do you see anything here that looks like it’s “running away”? In the first picture, glowing vesicles are streaming through tubular structures in multiple directions.  In the second picture, blebs and tethered vesicles can be seen “escaping” from the nucleus. I have even seen a wriggling filament escaping from a nucleus. In the last picture, small circular elements are seen “flying away” from a main circular body as if their very “lives” depended upon it. So exactly what is going on here? Well, here is my interpretation of what may be happening: These structures are behaving like endosymbionts that are attempting to escape from a toxic environment, i.e., cell death. They are all different sizes, as if they are some kind of conglomeration of different kinds of endosymbionts; chaos and order all wrapped together as in real life. So how do these chaotic “endosymbionts” form? Again, it is probably a matter of chance and timing. Timing includes where they are in the cell cycle at the moment of cell death and what developmental phase they are in, i.e., how well differentiated they are and in what tissues. Suffice it to say that most or all of these structures are doomed because they have long lost any chance at autonomy by losing genetic material no longer required for their viability within the cell. Their only chance at survival is to infect a cell and bind to its DNA.

Next post: apoptosis and avoidance of cancer.

 

Posted in cancer, cell cycle, endosymbionts, evolution, What are they? | Leave a comment

Hiding in Plain Site (III)

In the last two posts I shared photomicrographs of mouse L-1210 cells in various stages of decomposition. The unusual structures generated from nuclei appear to be related to the stage in the cell cycle in which the original cell was in at the time of decomposition. Let me provide models here to illustrate what I think is going on in these photomicrographs. I will do my best to keep this as simple as possible. If you want more detailed information, you can visit the rest of the blog are shoot me an e mail at fabernathy@sbcglobal.net.

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What you see in the first picture are small rings attached to a larger ring, the yellow arrow points to a small ring that has an internal hub associated with it. Part of these rings are missing in the bottom of the larger ring, revealing some kind of attachment matrix. In the next two pictures these small rings can be seen detaching from the larger ring, much like grapes falling from a vine. In the last picture can be seen fusions of circles. I believe these phenomena can be explained in the following way:

There is a binary switch here which functions like a computer bit, i.e., off or on (1 or 0). In the case of circles, it is fission or fusion. The circles are either released from the nuclear DNA or they fuse with it. In either case, information is lost making the process irreversible. In the case of fusion, only a small amount of information (DNA) is lost. In the case of fission, an entire circle of DNA is lost. This irreversibility is why scientists have had so many problems with stem cell research. So the next question is this: How do adult salamanders and lizards regenerate limbs and tails? The answer to this is quite simple: There exists a population of precursor cells within these animals that have not undergone differentiation. When a limb is amputated, these cells begin to proliferate and regenerate the limb. Apparently, humans and other animals lack these kinds of cells. So one final paradox remains: How can scientists clone sheep or other animals when these kinds of regenerating cells appear to be lacking? Dolly was cloned from sheep udder cells but the process was very inefficient; out of 277 cell fusions, only one yielded a viable reproductive animal. There are similar problems with adult stem cell research in general. I would hazard to guess that the closer the stem cell is genetically to its desired tissue type, the greater the odds of success. So what about Dolly? How was that possible? Again, I will hazard another guess: There may be some cells lurking about in adult tissues that are capable of regenerating a complete animal, i.e., their DNA has not been “corrupted” by differentiation. Finding those cells (when they exist) is like looking for a needle in a haystack.

The problems associated with stem cell research may lie in something called heterochromatin. Simply put, this is inactive DNA covered by layers of proteins. I suggest that the heterochromatin in different kinds of stem cells inactivates different kinds of DNA. This heterchromatic DNA may still be in pristine condition, i.e. there has been no loss of genetic information. Stem cells that generate red blood cells may have heterochromatic DNA that can be used to generate nerve cells and vice versa. Therefore, the closer genetically the stem cell is to the desired tissue, the better the results. One potential problem with this could occur if the original stem cell DNA is still active in the cloned cell. This could result in a genetic chimera with two active compartments, kind of like fusing mouse and human cells.

The binary model I have discussed here is not limited to cell differentiation as you will find out by visiting other posts and page tabs on this blog. I use this model to explain how cells such as ours evolved from bacteria and viruses and may still do so today. In fact, cancer may result from the way our cells have evolved from more primitive forms of life, including not only viruses and bacteria, but even yeast and more complex forms of life.

Next post: Runaway endosymbionts, what are they?

 

 

Posted in cancer, cell cycle, cellular differentiation, evolution, What are they? | Leave a comment

Hiding in Plain Site (II)

I assume that the “woosh, over the head” factor was a bit too much in the last post. That’s ok, got to start somewhere, right? Let’s try that one more time. In fact, if I knew how to do it, I would even try a live video stream so people could ask me questions in real time. That would be cool, wouldn’t it? However, in lieu of that, here goes:

 

Some of these pictures were in the last post. The last one has been cropped. Let me try to explain what I think is going on here: In the first pic are many concentric rings containing discrete black, oblong particles. They seem to be tethered in a way that creates this bouquet effect. In the second pic, there appears to be a consolidation of particles into two larger structures, an outer ring and an inner hub. In the third picture these particles are no longer visible. Instead, you see a ring of smaller rings, some with hubs associated with them.  In the next picture, these ringed particles are being released from the larger ring. Some rings have hubs associated with them as on pictures 5 and 6. Note the well defined hub in the fifth picture. In the sixth picture the hub seems to be degenerating as the particle in the outer ring become more defined and consolidated. In the last picture the ring seems to be breaking up into discrete linear structures that look like chromosomes.

I think what you are seeing here is the development of chromosomes as they pass through the cell cycle.  When similar particles are stained with fluoresecent dye, this is what you see:

Some of the commonalities here include a large outer ring with or without a hub. The composition of this outer ring can vary from medium oblong beads to circular rings which may also contain hubs and finally to fused oblong structures that seem to break up into chromosome-like structures. Apparently the ring on a ring stage is a very delicate phase where these smaller rings can be released before they fuse together to make more oblong structures. These patterns are quite complex but there seems to be a method to all this madness.

Let me show you one last thing:

In the first picture here, the arrows point to fusions of some circles. In the second picture is evidence of an even larger fusion circle. In the last picture the circles exist as separate entities. It is quite obvious that circles may either fuse together or they may separate, depending upon the nature of their compositions which may be cell cycle dependent.  These structures are the basis for the models I present in this blog in other areas regarding cellular evolution, differentiation, and cancer. Stay tuned for more.

Posted in cancer, cell cycle, cellular differentiation, evolution | Leave a comment

Hiding in Plain Sight

Like a lot of people, I enjoy tickling living things to get a response out of them. It doesn’t hurt them but you sure know they’re very much alive! Grandkids are one example. In some cases, however, “tickling” is irreversible. Tickle a tarantula with a stick and you’re liable to get covered in urticating hairs they spray out from their body. If you tickle a cell nucleus in just the right way, however, the whole thing starts to deconstruct right in front of your eyes. I know because I did it many years ago at Ohio State University. Not only did I facilitate deconstruction of nuclei, I seem to have done so in various stages of the cell cycle so that all of the pieces parts changed from one phase of the cell cycle to the next. Boring, right? Well, give me a chance here, ok? I know this is a tough crowd here.

If you ever took a biology course you should know something about the cell cycle. Most of the replicating cell exists in what is called S phase where the DNA is being synthesized so the cell can split into daughter cells. When all of this is done, there exists a brief moment in the cell cycle where the duplicated chromosomes condense and are easily seen under a light microscope. They line up in the center of the cell where they split apart so each new daughter cell gets an equal share of the DNA via daughter chromosomes.

Ok, enough of that already, I don’t want your brain to explode. Let me show you some pictures, instead. Please excuse me if you’ve already seen them but I need some visuals to make a few points here. I’ll make it as simple and brief as possible:

This is a picture of mouse L-1210 cancer cells just placed under the microscope. They have been stained with a dye called acridine orange that makes them light up in the dark under ultraviolet light. The larger cell has probably just duplicated its DNA and is getting ready to divide. You can just see a vague outline of the nucleus here. These cells have a very small amount of cytoplasm outside the nucleus. The orange inclusions inside the cytoplasm (second arrow) are probably lysosomes that are used to digest material within the cell. This dye stains double stranded DNA as yellow or green and single stranded DNA or RNA as orange or red. However, under acidic conditions as found in lysosomes, it will glow orange or red.


Images 1-3 are probably naked nuclei since no orange “lysosomes” can be seen. These nuclei begin to swell until they are huge. This is because they are dying from lack of nutrients and/or oxygen deprivation etc and constant irradiation with ultraviolet light under the microscope. Note the presence of “blebs” in images 2 and 3 popping out around the edges of each nuclear body. These blebs have dark green rings around their edges. The nuclear body in image 3 has degraded enough that large vesicles have formed. A smaller vesicle has migrated out of the nuclear body attached to a filament with a smaller leading filament attached at its front.

So what the heck is going on here? Well, let’s look at some more pictures:

Flabbergasted yet? At first glance, this looks like the cell culture was contaminated by yeast or protozoa. These structures are far too big to be bacteria but are very similar in shape, just like a chain of yeast. However, these structures were not there initially, so they must have originated from the mouse cells.

The structures in this photo are different in size, shape, coloration and orientation. They also appear to be migrating along green hollow tubes with an exit strategy in mind. Other bizarre structures can also be found:

 

 

Circular motifs

Radial motifs

Chromosome-like motifs

At first glance, this seems like absolute chaos in action, but when you consider the cell cycle it starts to make more sense. Many of these objects have a circular motif with or without central hubs. There is also a hierarchy as to how they are put together. Some of these circles contain even smaller circles with or without hubs. In others, there are no circles but discrete rod shaped particles. Some are arranged in concentric circles whereas others seem to be attempting exit strategies to the periphery of the main structure. Finally there are still others where the rods seem to connect together in a structure very similar to chromosomes. They seem to be derived from more circular elements that are breaking up into large, linked rods.

In summary, it is unfortunate that each of these structures were not videoed in real time because many of them seem to be transitioning into the others. They also need to be studied using techniques like immunostaining to get a better idea of their chemical compositions. Of course, this could still be done, but it would require funding and laboratory space to do so. In any case, it is quite obvious there is still much to be learned about how our DNA is really put together inside of our nuclei. Otherwise, we continue just shooting in the dark when it comes to medical advances.

You can learn more about my research by clicking on the tabs above this post.

 

Posted in cancer, cell cycle, evolution, Fallacies in science, What are they? | Leave a comment

Peer review ain’t what it used to be.

http://www.collective-evolution.com/2017/03/01/peer-reviewed-science-losing-credibility-as-large-amounts-of-research-shown-to-be-false/

Posted in Fallacies in science | Leave a comment

Are the 1% really as smart as they think they are? (Post 2)

The elites or 1% come with a variety of agendas: Usually we visualize them as something like the Rothschilds and their ilk, thinking they are smart enough to “Terra form” the Earth to something more to their liking. Imagine being arrogant, irrational, and delusional enough to believe you can actually improve on perfection by destroying it! These “geniuses” apparently think that if you produce enough chemtrails; poison enough air, food, and water, and kill off people in every way imaginable, that none of this will ever come back to bite them in their respective asses. They have “immunized” themselves, somehow, and are above the fray, so much so that they actually want nuclear war with Russia! That’s how delusional and insane these people really are. They actually believe they can crawl into their subterranean Mars bubbles and safely wait out all the disasters they want to impose on the rest of us. They are ruthless businessmen, warmongers, manipulators, assassins, financiers, and apparently worship Satan to boot. This is what they excel at because they have been honing their skills for centuries, if not millennia. As far as they are concerned, it has worked out quite well for them, this business of unsustainable growth on a planet with finite resources. After all, they live in palaces, mansions, on huge boats, they own most everything, and can take the rest whenever it suits their fancy. Yes, the process has gotten a bit messier, to be sure, but they just see that as part of doing business as usual. If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.

What they apparently are not very good at is science, especially biological science, evolution, and ecosystems. It must have something to do with their religious affiliations, because religions in general seem to be anti-science, a kind of super religion which could be aptly named reflexology, involving much kool aid and brain washing with a generous dose of raw, primal emotions to quench the curious, wandering, critical, reflective, rebellious mind.

So where do we go from here?  Are we so far gone as a species that like a smoker who just learned they have lung cancer decides: What the hell, gonna die anyway, might as well enjoy myself? It is very late in the day, not only for us, but for pretty much all forms of complex life. We are on the cusp of mass extinctions that will collapse the world wide food chains, including the parts that generate oxygen for us to breathe. I know the elite have all of this worked out because they must have massive underground terra-formed domed cities in which to live that are completely self-sufficient. They have everything figured out down to the last nut and bolt with their Noah’s Arks. There is absolutely nothing left to chance. Let nuclear war begin! Sterilize the entire surface of the Earth with 100 megaton hydrogen bombs. They can sit quietly in their domes with their ear buds in, listening to music, and drinking wine as the bombs go off. They have carefully calculated all of the possible ramifications, oh, I forgot, they don’t like scientists, do they?  Or at least not any that don’t share their religious viewpoints of superiority. So what if one of those bombs opens up tectonic plate activity in the oceans, spewing lava and high pressure water and steam underground where they just happen to be living. So what?

Hmmm…maybe, just maybe, they need to tweak this grandiose plan of theirs just a teeny weeny bit further.

Naaaaww! Let the games begin!

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/02/15/its-official-the-oceans-are-losing-oxygen-posing-growing-threats-to-marine-life/?utm_term=.0b95d2c48169

The original post is just below this one. I suggest you read it as well and watch the videos.

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Viruses are a two edged sword.

Here is a blog from a fellow traveler who believes as I do, that our cells are nothing more than a huge conglomeration of viruses.

Posted in evolution, virus | Leave a comment