Category Archives: endosymbionts

Symbiosis literally means “together with life”. There are a number of symbiotic relationships such as predator/prey, parasite/host, commensalism where one partner benefits without harming the other, and mutualism where all partners benefit from the relationship. Endosymbiosis is when a small partner is physically within the cells of another larger partner. It could theoretically include all of the relationships previously described. In this blog, I focus on endosymbiosis that is mutualistic. I believe it has been a driving force in the evolution of eukaryotic cells, such as we have.

Runaway Endosymbionts: What are They?

Runaway Endosymbionts: What are They? Well, I think this needs a bit of elaboration, don’t you? First of all, what exactly is a symbiont, much less and endosymbiont? Fair question. A symbiont is one of two or more organisms engaged … Continue reading

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The bacteria that gave life to us?

Evidence is piling in that within extreme forms of bacteria called Archaea there is a group called Asgard with DNA fingerprints suggesting ancestry to cells like our own.  It appears that all eukaryotic cells were created by a single endosymbiotic event in … Continue reading

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Cancer as a Criminal Entity

What exactly is cancer? I’ve discussed this topic before in a variety of ways but thought it might be useful to bring it up again during the new year. Most everyone knows that cancer is runaway cell growth. At its … Continue reading

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Evidence for hierarchical endosymbiosis

In this blog, there are numerous references regarding hierarchical endosymbiosis. Simply put, this phrase means that cells swallowed smaller cells that were, in turn,  swallowed by larger cells and so forth. Not only did this swallowing happen, but the genetic material of … Continue reading

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Is cell mitosis composed of smaller cell mitoses?

Ok, this is a really weird title, even for me. However, this whole blog is about how our cells and DNA were stitched together using smaller endosymbiotic cells and their DNA. If these smaller cells also had mitotic spindles, they may … Continue reading

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More foreign DNA here! Must be those pesky aliens again!

Ever heard of horizontal gene transfer? Don’t freak, let me explain! It’s when an organism acquires new genes not from its parents but from other sources. Sounds pretty alien, right? Well, it can happen right here on earth too. It is what … Continue reading

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Humans from viruses? Well, sort of.

I have been saying for years that a process I call hierarchical endosymbiosis has been responsible for a geometric growth of cellular complexity starting with viruses, then, bacteria, simple complex cells (eukaryotes), and increasingly more complex eukaryotes such as ourselves. … Continue reading

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